Selected publications

Organoids are promising tools for species-specific in vitro toxicological studies.

J Appl Toxicol. 2019 Jun 5. doi: 10.1002/jat.3815. [Epub ahead of print]

Augustyniak J1, Bertero A2, Coccini T3, Baderna D4, Buzanska L1, Caloni F2

Author information

1 Department of Stem Cell Bioengineering, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

2 Department of Veterinary Medicine (DIMEVET), Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

3 Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Toxicology, Toxicology Unit, ICS Maugeri SpA-SB, IRCCS Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

4 Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Italy.


Organoids are three-dimensional self-aggregating structures generated from stem cells (SCs) or progenitor cells in a process that recapitulates molecular and cellular stages of early organ development. The differentiation process leads to the appearance of specialized mature cells and is connected with changes in the organoid internal structure rearrangement and self-organization. The formation of organ-specific structures in vitro with highly ordered architecture is also strongly influenced by the extracellular matrix. These features make organoids as a powerful model for in vitro toxicology. Nowadays this technology is developing very quickly. In this review we present, from a toxicological and species-specific point of view, the state of the art of organoid generation from adult SCs and pluripotent SCs: embryonic SCs or induced pluripotent SCs. The current culture organoid techniques are discussed for their main advantages, disadvantages and limitations. In the second part of the review, we concentrated on the characterization of species-specific organoids generated from tissue-specific SCs of different sources: mammary (bovine), epidermis (canine), intestinal (porcine, bovine, canine, chicken) and liver (feline, canine).


3D models; ESCs; iPSCs; organoids; spheroids; stem cells; toxicology