Impact of neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia on oligodendrocyte survival, maturation and myelinating potential.

J Cell Mol Med. 2018 Jan;22(1):207-222. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13309. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Ziemka-Nalecz M1, Janowska J1, Strojek L1, Jaworska J1, Zalewska T1, Frontczak-Baniewicz M2, Sypecka J1.

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1 NeuroRepair Department, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

2 Electron Microscopy Platform, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

 

Impact of neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia on oligodendrocyte survival, maturation and myelinating potential.

ABSTRACT

Hypoxic-ischaemic episodes experienced at the perinatal period commonly lead to a development of neurological disabilities and cognitive impairments in neonates or later in childhood. Clinical symptoms often are associated with the observed alterations in white matter in the brains of diseased children, suggesting contribution of triggered oligodendrocyte/myelin pathology to the resulting disorders. To date, the processes initiated by perinatal asphyxia remain unclear, hampering the ability to develop preventions. To address the issue, the effects of temporal hypoxia-ischaemia on survival, proliferation and the myelinating potential of oligodendrocytes were evaluated ex vivo using cultures of hippocampal organotypic slices and in vivo in rat model of perinatal asphyxia. The potential engagement of gelatinases in oligodendrocyte maturation was assessed as well. The results pointed to a significant decrease in the number of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which is compensated for to a certain extent by the increased rate of OPC proliferation. Oligodendrocyte maturation seemed however to be significantly altered. An ultrastructural examination of selected brain regions performed several weeks after the insult showed however that the process of developing central nervous system myelination proceeds efficiently resulting in enwrapping the majority of axons in compact myelin. The increased angiogenesis in response to neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic insult was also noticed. In conclusion, the study shows that hypoxic-ischaemic episodes experienced during the most active period of nervous system development might be efficiently compensated for by the oligodendroglial cell response triggered by the insult. The main obstacle seems to be the inflammatory process modulating the local microenvironment.

KEYWORDS:

electron microscopy; gelatinases; hippocampal organotypic slices; myelin structure; myelinogenesis; neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia; oligodendrocyte progenitor cells; oxygen and glycose deprivation; perinatal asphyxia

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