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Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From Roots to Boost.

Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From Roots to Boost.

 Stem Cells. 2019 Apr 12. doi: 10.1002/stem.3016. [Epub ahead of print]

Andrzejewska A1, Lukomska B1, Janowski M1,2,3.

Author information

1        NeuroRepair Department, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

2        Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

3        Cellular Imaging Section and Vascular Biology Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

It was shown as long as half a century ago that bone marrow is a source of not only hematopoietic stem cells, but also stem cells of mesenchymal tissues. Then the term of "mesenchymal stem cells" (MSCs) has been coined in early 1990s and over a decade later, the criteria for defining MSCs have been released by International Society for Cellular Therapy. The easy derivation from a variety of fetal and adult tissues and not demanding cell culture conditions made MSCs an attractive research object. It was followed by the avalanche of reports from preclinical studies on potentially therapeutic properties of MSCs, such as immunomodulation, trophic support and capability for a spontaneous differentiation into connective tissue cells, and differentiation into majority of cell types upon specific inductive conditions. Although ontogenesis, niche, and heterogeneity of MSCs are still under investigation, there is a rapid boost of attempts in clinical applications of MSCs, especially for a flood of civilization-driven conditions in so quickly aging societies in not only developed countries, but also very populous developing world. The fields of regenerative medicine and oncology are particularly extensively addressed by MSC applications, in part due to paucity of traditional therapeutic options for these highly demanding and costly conditions. There are currently almost 1,000 clinical trials from entire world registered at clinicalTrials.gov and it seems that we are starting to witness the snowball effect with MSCs becoming a powerful global industry; however, spectacular effects of MSCs in clinic still need to be shown. Stem Cells 2019.

© AlphaMed Press 2019.

KEYWORDS:

Clinical; Differentiation; History; Immunomodulation; Mesenchymal stem cells; Paracrine activity