The mission of MMRI PAS is to combine basic research with preclinical research and clinical translation. In this respect, MMRI PAS is unique among the institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Institute's research topics focus on key problems related to rare and lifestyle diseases.

The Institute's research priorities include the following research directions:
1. Molecular mechanisms of Central Nervous System development  and pathologies – research with use of animal models, human iPSC and brain organoids. Disease modeling and personalized medicine 
2. Cancer - basic research - development of a "multi-onko-map" - multiomic map of molecular programs in the most lethal cancers and diagnostics of brain tumors (neurogenetics and neuropathology).
3. Healthy aging and longevity – molecular and epidemiological research on long-lived people (including centenarians). Prevention of obesity and diabetes, rehabilitation in age-related diseases.
4. Rare diseases. Basic research and diagnostics (neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases)
5. Translational research in regenerative medicine. Preclinical studies on animal models and experimental therapy of CNS disorders using human stem cells isolated from different tissues and organs, e.g. bone marrow and adipose tissue.
6. Experimental pharmacology. Designing new drugs. Pharmacological neuroprotection.

Scientific disciplines practiced at the Institute: Medical sciences